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dc.contributor.authorCorkery, John Martin
dc.contributor.authorHung, Wang-Chu
dc.contributor.authorClaridge, Hugh
dc.contributor.authorGoodair, Christine
dc.contributor.authorCopeland, Caroline S.
dc.contributor.authorSchifano, Fabrizio
dc.date.accessioned2021-06-07T13:00:01Z
dc.date.available2021-06-07T13:00:01Z
dc.date.issued2021-11-01
dc.identifier.citationCorkery , J M , Hung , W-C , Claridge , H , Goodair , C , Copeland , C S & Schifano , F 2021 , ' Recreational ketamine-related deaths notified to the National Programme on Substance Abuse Deaths, England, 1997-2019 ' , Journal of Psychopharmacology , vol. 35 , no. 11 , pp. 1324-1348 . https://doi.org/10.1177/02698811211021588
dc.identifier.issn0269-8811
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 25170849
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 47bb0629-09d6-497e-92f0-d1677275ffb8
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85107302536
dc.identifier.otherJisc: 3d5c0b408e5f44cbaafe736b9b8baa29
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2299/24558
dc.description© 2021 The Authors. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).
dc.description.abstractBackground: Ketamine is a phencyclidine derivative with dissociative anaesthetic properties. Increasing numbers of individuals in England take ketamine recreationally. Information on deaths arising from such use in England is presented. Methods: Cases were extracted on 31 January 2020 from the National Programme on Substance Abuse Deaths database, based on text searches of the cause of death, coroner’s verdict and positive toxicology results for the terms ‘ketamine’ or ‘norketamine’. Findings: During 1997–2005, there were <5 deaths p.a. in which ketamine was implicated. Numbers increased until 2009 (21), plateauing until 2016; thereafter, deaths have risen to about 30 p.a. Decedents’ characteristics (N = 283): male 84.1%, mean age 31.2 (SD 10.0) years, employed 56.5%, drug use history 79.6% and living with others 60.3%. Ketamine was detected with other substances in most cases. Main (74.6%) underlying cause of death was accidental poisoning. Ketamine may have impaired judgement in other cases. Conclusions: Although controlled, recreational ketamine use and related fatalities continue to increase. Consumers need to be more aware of the potentially fatal risks they face.en
dc.format.extent25
dc.language.isoeng
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Psychopharmacology
dc.rightsOpen
dc.subjectKetamine
dc.subjectDeaths
dc.subjectEngland
dc.subjectDrug misuse
dc.subjectRecreational use
dc.subjectketamine
dc.subjectrecreational use
dc.subjectdrug misuse
dc.subjectOriginal Papers
dc.subjectPsychiatry and Mental health
dc.subjectPharmacology (medical)
dc.subjectPharmacology
dc.titleRecreational ketamine-related deaths notified to the National Programme on Substance Abuse Deaths, England, 1997-2019en
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Clinical, Pharmaceutical and Biological Science
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Health Services and Clinical Research
dc.contributor.institutionPsychopharmacology, Drug Misuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances Unit
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Life and Medical Sciences
dc.description.statusPeer reviewed
dc.identifier.urlhttp://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85107302536&partnerID=8YFLogxK
dc.relation.schoolSchool of Life and Medical Sciences
dc.description.versiontypeFinal Published version
dcterms.dateAccepted2021-11-01
rioxxterms.versionVoR
rioxxterms.versionofrecordhttps://doi.org/10.1177/02698811211021588
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
herts.preservation.rarelyaccessedtrue
herts.rights.accesstypeOpen


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