Screening of nematicides against the Lotus root nematode, Hirschmanniella diversa Sher (Tylenchida: Pratylenchidae), and the efficacy of a selected nematicide under Lotus micro-field conditions.
In Japan, Hirschmanniella diversa is an important pest in lotus cultivation in paddy fields and only lime nitrogen is registered for its control. Therefore, additional nematicides are required to control the nematode. The objective of this study was to screen for an effective nematicide. Fourth-stage juveniles and adults of H. diversa sampled from a lotus field were tested in in vitro solution experiments against 37 pesticides that are registered for the pest control of crops in Japan. Carbamate-based benfuracarb, organophosphate-based fenthion, nereistoxin-based cartap hydrochloride and cyanamide showed nematicidal effects against H. diversa. Benfuracarb at 1 μg/mL showed a nematostatic effect on H. diversa in an agar plate assay. Further, H. diversa treated with benfuracarb did not resume activity 7 days post nematicide treatment when transferred to distilled water. Benfuracarb was tested in micro-field experiments, in which H. diversa density and lotus tuber damage levels were monitored. Results showed that benfuracarb reduced H. diversa densities in the roots during the cultivation period in 2012 and consistently reduced damage levels during a five year study period. Thus, benfuracarb is recommended as an effective nematicide to be used for H. diversa control in lotus cultivation