A Dynamic Game with Adaptive Strategies For IEEE 802.15.4 and IoT
The problem of selfishness and misbehaviour in wireless networks is well known, as are the associated solutions that have been proposed for it in IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and Wireless Sensory Network (WSN). However, tackling such problem in relation to the Internet of Things (IoT) is relatively new since the IoT is still under development. The central communication infrastructure of IoT is the IEEE 802.15.4 standard which defines low-rate and low energy wireless personal area networks. In order to share the medium fairly and efficiently in a beacon-enabled mode, the standard uses Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) in the Contention Access Period (CAP), and Guarantee Time Slot (GTS) in the Contention Free Period (CFP) of a super-frame. These channel sharing mechanisms are known to be vulnerable to selfishness, misbehaviour and channel capture as a result of nodes disobeying the communication rules. Most of the existing game theoretic solutions were designed for IEEE 802.11 WLAN and WSN. In this work, we present a dynamic game in which nodes can select and adapt their strategies of play according to the 'state of the game' and their energy level in order to increase their utility whenever their utility declined. Our model enables resources constrained nodes to optimised their strategies individually based upon the current state of the game and their available resources. Our analysis and simulation results suggest an improvement in utility, and fairness in channel sharing, as well as efficiency in energy usage in our dynamic model and hence performance and security in our scheme over the default IEEE 802.15.4 access mechanism.