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dc.contributor.authorDean, Charlotte E
dc.contributor.authorAkhtar, Shazia
dc.contributor.authorGale, Tim M
dc.contributor.authorIrvine, Karen
dc.contributor.authorWiseman, Richard
dc.contributor.authorLaws, Keith R
dc.date.accessioned2021-08-23T15:00:27Z
dc.date.available2021-08-23T15:00:27Z
dc.date.issued2021-06-23
dc.identifier.citationDean , C E , Akhtar , S , Gale , T M , Irvine , K , Wiseman , R & Laws , K R 2021 , ' Development of the Paranormal and Supernatural Beliefs Scale using classical and modern test theory ' , BMC Psychology , vol. 9 , no. 1 , 98 . https://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-021-00600-y
dc.identifier.issn2050-7283
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 25783391
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 9d056682-dc02-4a3f-a746-96e16786ab53
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 34162430
dc.identifier.otherPubMedCentral: PMC8220838
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85108792580
dc.identifier.otherJisc: 16dbda9cc8f7428db5f22298581e5e33
dc.identifier.otherpublisher-id: s40359-021-00600-y
dc.identifier.othermanuscript: 600
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0003-4087-3802/work/99078925
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0002-1064-7743/work/99079151
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2299/25005
dc.description.abstractBackground: This study describes the construction and validation of a new scale for measuring belief in paranormal phenomena. The work aims to address psychometric and conceptual shortcomings associated with existing measures of paranormal belief. The study also compares the use of classic test theory and modern test theory as methods for scale development. Method: We combined novel items and amended items taken from existing scales, to produce an initial corpus of 29 items. Two hundred and thirty-one adult participants rated their level of agreement with each item using a seven-point Likert scale. Results: Classical test theory methods (including exploratory factor analysis and principal components analysis) reduced the scale to 14 items and one overarching factor: Supernatural Beliefs. The factor demonstrated high internal reliability, with an excellent test–retest reliability for the total scale. Modern test theory methods (Rasch analysis using a rating scale model) reduced the scale to 13 items with a four-point response format. The Rasch scale was found to be most effective at differentiating between individuals with moderate-high levels of paranormal beliefs, and differential item functioning analysis indicated that the Rasch scale represents a valid measure of belief in paranormal phenomena. Conclusions: The scale developed using modern test theory is identified as the final scale as this model allowed for in-depth analyses and refinement of the scale that was not possible using classical test theory. Results support the psychometric reliability of this new scale for assessing belief in paranormal phenomena, particularly when differentiating between individuals with higher levels of belief.en
dc.language.isoeng
dc.relation.ispartofBMC Psychology
dc.subjectAnomalous beliefs
dc.subjectClassical test theory
dc.subjectFactor analysis
dc.subjectModern test theory
dc.subjectParanormal beliefs
dc.subjectRasch analysis
dc.subjectRating scale model
dc.subjectScale
dc.subjectScale development
dc.subjectSupernatural
dc.subjectPsychology(all)
dc.titleDevelopment of the Paranormal and Supernatural Beliefs Scale using classical and modern test theoryen
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Psychology
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Psychology, Sport and Geography
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Life and Medical Sciences
dc.contributor.institutionUniversity of Hertfordshire
dc.description.statusPeer reviewed
dc.identifier.urlhttp://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85108792580&partnerID=8YFLogxK
rioxxterms.versionVoR
rioxxterms.versionofrecordhttps://doi.org/10.1186/s40359-021-00600-y
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
herts.preservation.rarelyaccessedtrue


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