PI3Kδ inhibition prevents IL33, ILC2s and inflammatory eosinophils in persistent airway inflammation
Chris D Edwards
Matthew G Williamson
Edith M Hessel
Background: Phosphoinositide-3-kinase-delta (PI3Kδ) inhibition is a promising therapeutic approach for inflammatory conditions due to its role in leucocyte proliferation, migration and activation. However, the effect of PI3Kδ inhibition on group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and inflammatory eosinophils remains unknown. Using a murine model exhibiting persistent airway inflammation we sought to understand the effect of PI3Kδ inhibition, montelukast and anti-IL5 antibody treatment on IL33 expression, group-2-innate lymphoid cells, inflammatory eosinophils, and goblet cell metaplasia. Results: Mice were sensitised to house dust mite and after allowing inflammation to resolve, were re-challenged with house dust mite to re-initiate airway inflammation. ILC2s were found to persist in the airways following house dust mite sensitisation and after re-challenge their numbers increased further along with accumulation of inflammatory eosinophils. In contrast to montelukast or anti-IL5 antibody treatment, PI3Kδ inhibition ablated IL33 expression and prevented group-2-innate lymphoid cell accumulation. Only PI3Kδ inhibition and IL5 neutralization reduced the infiltration of inflammatory eosinophils. Moreover, PI3Kδ inhibition reduced goblet cell metaplasia. Conclusions: Hence, we show that PI3Kδ inhibition dampens allergic inflammatory responses by ablating key cell types and cytokines involved in T-helper-2-driven inflammatory responses.