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dc.contributor.authorChiappini, Stefania
dc.contributor.authorVickers-Smith, Rachel
dc.contributor.authorGuirguis, Amira
dc.contributor.authorCorkery, John Martin
dc.contributor.authorMartinotti, Giovanni
dc.contributor.authorSchifano, Fabrizio
dc.date.accessioned2022-05-23T11:30:01Z
dc.date.available2022-05-23T11:30:01Z
dc.date.issued2022-05-01
dc.identifier.citationChiappini , S , Vickers-Smith , R , Guirguis , A , Corkery , J M , Martinotti , G & Schifano , F 2022 , ' A Focus on Abuse/Misuse and Withdrawal Issues with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): Analysis of Both the European EMA and the US FAERS Pharmacovigilance Databases ' , Pharmaceuticals , vol. 15 , no. 5 , e565 . https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15050565
dc.identifier.issn1424-8247
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 27386846
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: a4ae2115-a5d7-4cdf-8a22-173d4b2a4646
dc.identifier.otherJisc: 287102
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 85129933139
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-8255-0660/work/113668818
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2299/25512
dc.description© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
dc.description.abstractDespite increasing reports, antidepressant (AD) misuse and dependence remain underestimated issues, possibly due to limited epidemiological and pharmacovigilance evidence. Thus, here we aimed to determine available pharmacovigilance misuse/abuse/dependence/withdrawal signals relating to the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI) citalopram, escitalopram, paroxetine, fluoxetine, and sertraline. Both EudraVigilance (EV) and Food and Drug Administration-FDA Adverse Events Reporting System (FAERS) datasets were analysed to identify AD misuse/abuse/dependence/withdrawal issues. A descriptive analysis was performed; moreover, pharmacovigilance measures, including the reporting odds ratio (ROR), the proportional reporting ratio (PRR), the information component (IC), and the empirical Bayesian geometric mean (EBGM) were calculated. Both datasets showed increasing trends of yearly reporting and similar signals regarding abuse and dependence. From the EV, a total of 5335 individual ADR reports were analysed, of which 30% corresponded to paroxetine (n = 1,592), 27% citalopram (n = 1,419), 22% sertraline (n = 1,149), 14% fluoxetine (n = 771), and 8% escitalopram (n = 404). From FAERS, a total of 144,395 individual ADR reports were analysed, of which 27% were related to paroxetine, 27% sertraline, 18% citalopram, 16% fluoxetine, and 13% escitalopram. Comparing SSRIs, the EV misuse/abuse-related ADRs were mostly recorded for citalopram, fluoxetine, and sertraline; conversely, dependence was mostly associated with paroxetine, and withdrawal to escitalopram. Similarly, in the FAERS dataset, dependence/withdrawal-related signals were more frequently reported for paroxetine. Although SSRIs are considered non-addictive pharmacological agents, a range of proper withdrawal symptoms can occur well after discontinuation, especially with paroxetine. Prescribers should be aware of the potential for dependence and withdrawal associated with SSRIs.en
dc.format.extent17
dc.language.isoeng
dc.relation.ispartofPharmaceuticals
dc.rightsOpen
dc.subjectantidepressants
dc.subjectselective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)
dc.subjectwithdrawal
dc.subjectprescription drug abuse
dc.subjectdrug misuse
dc.subjectpharmacovigilance
dc.titleA Focus on Abuse/Misuse and Withdrawal Issues with Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs): Analysis of Both the European EMA and the US FAERS Pharmacovigilance Databasesen
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Life and Medical Sciences
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Clinical, Pharmaceutical and Biological Science
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Health Services and Clinical Research
dc.contributor.institutionPsychopharmacology, Drug Misuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances Unit
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Astrophysics Research
dc.description.statusPeer reviewed
dc.relation.schoolSchool of Life and Medical Sciences
dc.description.versiontypeFinal Published version
dcterms.dateAccepted2022-05-01
rioxxterms.versionVoR
rioxxterms.versionofrecordhttps://doi.org/10.3390/ph15050565
rioxxterms.licenseref.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
herts.preservation.rarelyaccessedtrue
herts.rights.accesstypeOpen


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