Towards a sustainable energy future for Egypt: A systematic review of renewable energy sources, technologies, challenges, and recommendations
Salah, Salma I.
Egypt has a significant role in international energy transit, being one of the major economies in the African continent. However, its energy sector is still overwhelmed with the local energy demands. It has been predicted that Egypt's CO 2 emissions could increase by around 125% from 2012 to 2035 if the nation's energy demand is met using conventional power generation technologies. Given that Egypt has signed the Kyoto protocol and recognised the role of international cooperation in facing climate change, the country should focus on meeting the growing energy demand using clean energy technologies. In the meantime, Egypt has been facing many challenges due to the water scarcity issues and environmental risks arising from the lack of efficient solid waste management strategies over the last few decades. It has been predicted that the country's crude oil reserves might be depleted within the next 15 years or so. To face these challenges effectively and enforce the Egyptian role in international energy transit, renewable energy (RE) technologies and their applications should be the main focus of the current/future Egyptian energy frameworks. This review summarises the current energy outlook of Egypt while analysing the country's potential to harness energy from sustainable sources. In general, it has been found that Egypt's renewable energy sector is yet to be exploited for sustainable energy production through its diverse and plentiful resources. Eventually, two scenarios have been proposed to consider in achieving the nation's 2035 energy target, which is to generate 42% of the country's energy need through renewable sources. This study should help Egypt and other countries to set the way forward in achieving the NET ZERO target that the whole world aims to fulfil over the next few decades.