Coverage Probability of STAR-RIS assisted Massive MIMO systems with Correlation and Phase Errors
In this letter, we investigate a simultaneous transmitting and reflecting reconfigurable intelligent surface (STAR-RIS) assisting a massive multiple-input multiple-output (mMIMO) system. In particular, we derive a closed-form expression for the coverage probability of a STAR-RIS assisted mMIMO system while accounting for correlated fading and phase-shift errors. Notably, the phase configuration takes place at every several coherence intervals by optimizing the coverage probability since the latter depends on statistical channel state information (CSI) in terms of large-scale statistics. As a result, we achieve a reduced complexity and overhead for the optimization of passive beamforming, which are increased in the case of STAR-RIS networks with instantaneous CSI. Numerical results corroborate our analysis, shed light on interesting properties such as the impact of the number of RIS elements and the effect of phase errors, along with affirming the superiority of STAR-RIS against reflective-only RIS.