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dc.contributor.authorWang, Yijun
dc.contributor.authorKaastra, Jelle
dc.contributor.authorMehdipour, Missagh
dc.contributor.authorMao, Junjie
dc.contributor.authorCostantini, Elisa
dc.contributor.authorKriss, Gerard A.
dc.contributor.authorPinto, Ciro
dc.contributor.authorPonti, Gabriele
dc.contributor.authorBehar, Ehud
dc.contributor.authorBianchi, Stefano
dc.contributor.authorBranduardi-Raymont, Graziella
dc.contributor.authorMarco, Barbara De
dc.contributor.authorGrafton-Waters, Sam
dc.contributor.authorPetrucci, Pierre-Olivier
dc.contributor.authorEbrero, Jacobo
dc.contributor.authorWalton, Dominic James
dc.contributor.authorKaspi, Shai
dc.contributor.authorXue, Yongquan
dc.contributor.authorPaltani, Stéphane
dc.contributor.authorGesu, Laura di
dc.contributor.authorHe, Zhicheng
dc.date.accessioned2023-02-20T17:15:01Z
dc.date.available2023-02-20T17:15:01Z
dc.date.issued2022-01-14
dc.identifier.citationWang , Y , Kaastra , J , Mehdipour , M , Mao , J , Costantini , E , Kriss , G A , Pinto , C , Ponti , G , Behar , E , Bianchi , S , Branduardi-Raymont , G , Marco , B D , Grafton-Waters , S , Petrucci , P-O , Ebrero , J , Walton , D J , Kaspi , S , Xue , Y , Paltani , S , Gesu , L D & He , Z 2022 , ' Transient obscuration event captured in NGC~3227 II. Warm absorbers and obscuration events in archival XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations ' , Astronomy & Astrophysics , vol. 657 , A77 . https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202141599
dc.identifier.issn0004-6361
dc.identifier.otherArXiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/2110.07861v1
dc.identifier.otherORCID: /0000-0001-5819-3552/work/129622126
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2299/26070
dc.description© The European Southern Observatory (ESO). This is the accepted manuscript version of an article which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202141599
dc.description.abstractThe relationship between warm absorber (WA) outflows of active galactic nuclei and nuclear obscuration activities caused by optically thick clouds (obscurers) crossing the line of sight is still unclear. NGC 3227 is a suitable target for studying the properties of both WAs and obscurers because it matches the following selection criteria: WAs in both ultraviolet (UV) and X-rays, suitably variable, bright in UV and X-rays, and adequate archival spectra for making comparisons with the obscured spectra. In the aim of investigating WAs and obscurers of NGC 3227 in detail, we used a broadband spectral-energy-distribution model that is built in findings of the first paper in our series together with the photoionization code of SPEX software to fit the archival observational data taken by XMM-Newton and NuSTAR in 2006 and 2016. Using unobscured observations, we find four WA components with different ionization states (loga ζ [erg cm s -1] ∼-1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0). The highest-ionization WA component has a much higher hydrogen column density (∼10 22 cm -2) than the other three components (∼10 21 cm -2). The outflow velocities of these WAs range from 100 to 1300 km s -1, and show a positive correlation with the ionization parameter. These WA components are estimated to be distributed from the outer region of the broad line region (BLR) to the narrow line region. It is worth noting that we find an X-ray obscuration event in the beginning of the 2006 observation, which was missed by previous studies. We find that it can be explained by a single obscurer component. We also study the previously published obscuration event captured in one observation in 2016, which needs two obscurer components to fit the spectrum. A high-ionization obscurer component (loga ζa ∼a 2.80; covering factor C f a ∼a 30%) only appears in the 2016 observation, which has a high column density (∼10 23 cm -2). A low-ionization obscurer component (loga ζa ∼a 1.0a -a 1.9; C f a ∼a 20%-50%) exists in both 2006 and 2016 observations, which has a lower column density (∼10 22 cm -2). These obscurer components are estimated to reside within the BLR by their crossing time of transverse motions. The obscurers of NGC 3227 are closer to the center and have larger number densities than the WAs, which indicate that the WAs and obscurers might have different origins.en
dc.format.extent12
dc.format.extent2389884
dc.language.isoeng
dc.relation.ispartofAstronomy & Astrophysics
dc.subjectGalaxies: Seyfert
dc.subjectGalaxies: active
dc.subjectGalaxies: individual: NGC 3227
dc.subjectTechniques: spectroscopic
dc.subjectX-rays: galaxies
dc.subjectAstronomy and Astrophysics
dc.subjectSpace and Planetary Science
dc.titleTransient obscuration event captured in NGC~3227 II. Warm absorbers and obscuration events in archival XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observationsen
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Physics, Engineering & Computer Science
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Astrophysics Research
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics
dc.description.statusPeer reviewed
dc.identifier.urlhttp://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85123342902&partnerID=8YFLogxK
rioxxterms.versionofrecord10.1051/0004-6361/202141599
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
herts.preservation.rarelyaccessedtrue


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