Cocaine/crack cocaine consumption, treatment demand, seizures, related offences, prices, average purity levels and deaths in the UK (1990-2004)
A recent trend of escalating use of cocaine/crack cocaine was observed in the UK. The number of mentions on death certificates; last year use of cocaine; treatment demand, number of drug offenders, seizures, prices and average purity levels were the indicators used for this descriptive and correlational study. Figures ( 1990-2004) were taken from official UK sources. A total of 1022 cocaine/crack cocaine death mentions ( i.e. deaths from any cause where the presence of cocaine/ crack cocaine was also detected) were identified, with cocaine/ crack cocaine being the sole drug mentioned in 36% of cases. The number of cocaine/ crack cocaine death mentions showed a year-on-year increase and correlated positively with the following cocaine ( powder) figures: last year use ( p < 0.001); number of offenders ( p < 0.001) and number of seizures ( p < 0.001), but correlated negatively with price ( p < 0.001). Furthermore, the number of cocaine/ crack cocaine death mentions correlated positively with the number of crack offenders ( p < 0.001) and seizures ( p < 0.001), but correlated negatively with both crack purity ( p < 0.001) and price ( p < 0.05). With conditions of increasing drug availability having been met in the UK, decrease in cocaine prices were associated with higher consumption levels and this, in turn, contributed to the increase in number of cocaine-related fatalities. There are limitations with the information collected, since no distinction is usually made on medical death certificates between cocaine and crack cocaine. The present study being an ecological one, it proved difficult to address the role of confounding variables that may well explain some of the associations observed.
Published inJournal of Psychopharmacology
MetadataShow full item record
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Schifano, Fabrizio; Corkery, John (Dipartimento Nazionale per le Politiche Antidroga, 2006-01)
The role of ventral tegmental dopamine neurons in locomotor sensitization following quinpirole or (+)-amphetamine : Ex vivo voltammetric evidence Muscat, R.; Iravani, Mahmoud M.; Kruk, Z. L. (1996-12)Behavioural sensitization to the locomotor stimulating effects of (+)-amphetamine or quinpirole was induced in rats by intermittent drug administration. Following expression of sensitization, locomotor activity scores on ...
Analysis of the data sources, numbers and characteristics of cocaine-related DRD cases reported in Special Mortality Registries, or eventually in General Mortality Registries (GMR) when necessary : A Report for the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction Corkery, John (European Monitoring Centre for Drugs & Drugs Addiction, 2012-11-15)There have been increased numbers of cocaine-related deaths reported in some European countries since the early 1990s. There are indications that cocaine deaths are more difficult to define, detect and record as such in ...