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dc.contributor.authorSchifano, Fabrizio
dc.contributor.authorCorkery, John
dc.identifier.citationSchifano , F & Corkery , J 2008 , ' Cocaine/crack cocaine consumption, treatment demand, seizures, related offences, prices, average purity levels and deaths in the UK (1990-2004) ' , Journal of Psychopharmacology , vol. 22 , no. 1 , pp. 71-79 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 184267
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: a1f09ce0-3270-471e-95d7-b9f288ad12f3
dc.identifier.otherdspace: 2299/2667
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000253575500010
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 37749007200
dc.description“The final, definitive version of this article has been published in the Journal, Journal of Psychopharmacology, 22 (1), 2008, on SAGE Journals Online: - Copyright British Association for Psychopharmacology" DOI: 10.1177/0269881107079170
dc.description.abstractA recent trend of escalating use of cocaine/crack cocaine was observed in the UK. The number of mentions on death certificates; last year use of cocaine; treatment demand, number of drug offenders, seizures, prices and average purity levels were the indicators used for this descriptive and correlational study. Figures ( 1990-2004) were taken from official UK sources. A total of 1022 cocaine/crack cocaine death mentions ( i.e. deaths from any cause where the presence of cocaine/ crack cocaine was also detected) were identified, with cocaine/ crack cocaine being the sole drug mentioned in 36% of cases. The number of cocaine/ crack cocaine death mentions showed a year-on-year increase and correlated positively with the following cocaine ( powder) figures: last year use ( p < 0.001); number of offenders ( p < 0.001) and number of seizures ( p < 0.001), but correlated negatively with price ( p < 0.001). Furthermore, the number of cocaine/ crack cocaine death mentions correlated positively with the number of crack offenders ( p < 0.001) and seizures ( p < 0.001), but correlated negatively with both crack purity ( p < 0.001) and price ( p < 0.05). With conditions of increasing drug availability having been met in the UK, decrease in cocaine prices were associated with higher consumption levels and this, in turn, contributed to the increase in number of cocaine-related fatalities. There are limitations with the information collected, since no distinction is usually made on medical death certificates between cocaine and crack cocaine. The present study being an ecological one, it proved difficult to address the role of confounding variables that may well explain some of the associations observed.en
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Psychopharmacology
dc.subjectcrack cocaine
dc.subjectcocaine deaths
dc.subjectcocaine epidemiology
dc.subjectdrug misuse
dc.subjectECSTASY MDMA
dc.titleCocaine/crack cocaine consumption, treatment demand, seizures, related offences, prices, average purity levels and deaths in the UK (1990-2004)en
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Pharmacy
dc.contributor.institutionHealth & Human Sciences Research Institute
dc.description.statusPeer reviewed
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review

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