Improved dynamic cutting force model in ball end milling - Part 1 : Theoretical modelling and experimental callibration
An accurate cutting force model of ball-end milling is essential for precision prediction and compensation of tool deflection that dominantly determines the dimensional accuracy of the machined surface. This paper presents an improved theoretical dynamic cutting force model for ball-end milling. The three-dimensional instantaneous cutting forces acting on a single flute of a helical ball-end mill are integrated from the differential cutting force components on sliced elements of the flute along the cutter-axis direction. The size effect of undeformed chip thickness and the influence of the effective rake angle are considered in the formulation of the differential cutting forces based on the theory of oblique cutting. A set of half immersion slot milling tests is performed with a one-tooth solid carbide helical ball-end mill for the calibration of the cutting force coefficients. The recorded dynamic cutting forces are averaged to fit the theoretical model and yield the cutting force coefficients. The measured and simulated dynamic cutting forces are compared using the experimental calibrated cutting force coefficients, and there is a reasonable agreement. A further experimental verification of the dynamic cutting force model will be presented in a follow-up paper.