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dc.contributor.authorCaporale, G.M.
dc.contributor.authorGeorgellis, Y.
dc.contributor.authorTsitsianis, N.
dc.contributor.authorYin, Y.P.
dc.identifier.citationCaporale , G M , Georgellis , Y , Tsitsianis , N & Yin , Y P 2009 , ' Income and happiness across Europe : do reference values matter? ' , Journal of Economic Psychology , vol. 30 , no. 1 , pp. 42-51 .
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 83751
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: f366d157-74b3-43e2-b08e-80cda71150fb
dc.identifier.otherdspace: 2299/5801
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 58549117085
dc.descriptionOriginal article can be found at : Copyright Elsevier [Full text of this article is not available in the UHRA]
dc.description.abstractUsing cross-sectional data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey (ESS), we examine the relationship between income, relative income and happiness across 19 European countries. We find that a positive and statistically significant relationship between income and happiness does exist, but such a relationship is weakened by reference income. We also find that while reference income exerts a negative impact on happiness in the case of Western European countries, its effect is positive in the case of the Eastern European countries, a finding that is consistent with the ‘tunnel effect’ hypothesis. This suggests that for Eastern Europeans reference income is likely to be a source of information for forming expectations about their future economic prospects, rather than a yardstick measure for social comparisons.en
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Economic Psychology
dc.subjectcomparison income
dc.subjectreference groups
dc.subjectlife satisfaction
dc.titleIncome and happiness across Europe : do reference values matter?en
dc.contributor.institutionHertfordshire Business School
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Research on Management, Economy and Society
dc.contributor.institutionFinance and Accounting Research Unit
dc.contributor.institutionSocial Sciences, Arts & Humanities Research Institute
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Accounting, Finance and Economics
dc.description.statusPeer reviewed
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review

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