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Ig isotype switching in B lymphocytes : A method for estimating isotype switch frequency in cloned B cell lymphomas
We have developed a method for enumerating the frequency of Ig isotype switching in clones of B cells. The method adapts Poisson statistics to analyze the distribution of amounts of switched isotype produced by multiple ...
The role of rain in dispersal of pathogen inoculum
The importance of rain in the dispersal of micro-organisms was first demon strated in the 1880s, in the classic studies of Pierre Miquel (Figure 1) on the microflora of the Pare Montsouris in Paris. Collected rainwater ...
Eyespot disease of cereal
Eyespot (Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides ), a serious disease of winter wheat and barley, has increased in importance in the 1980s because I) pathogen populations have become resistant to the fungicides which were used ...
Stages in the progress of eyespot epidemics in winter wheat crops
The temporal progress of eyespot (Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides) epidemics in winter wheat crops is considered in four stages: leaf sheath lesion establishment, leaf sheath penetration, stem lesion establishment and ...