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dc.contributor.authorSchifano, Fabrizio
dc.contributor.authorOyefeso, A.
dc.contributor.authorCorkery, John
dc.contributor.authorCobain, K.
dc.contributor.authorJambert-Gray, R.
dc.contributor.authorMartinotti, G.
dc.contributor.authorGhodse, A. Hamid
dc.date.accessioned2011-08-15T10:01:02Z
dc.date.available2011-08-15T10:01:02Z
dc.date.issued2003
dc.identifier.citationSchifano , F , Oyefeso , A , Corkery , J , Cobain , K , Jambert-Gray , R , Martinotti , G & Ghodse , A H 2003 , ' Death rates from ecstasy (MDMA, MDA) and polydrug use in England and Wales 1996-2002 ' , Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental , vol. 18 , no. 7 , pp. 519-524 . https://doi.org/10.1002/hup.528
dc.identifier.issn0885-6222
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 307766
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 12e65f5a-3c67-4fa3-b9f5-9cbe2f9f9128
dc.identifier.otherPubMed: 14533133
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000185958800003
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 0142074803
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2299/6168
dc.descriptionThe full text of this article is not available in the UHRA
dc.description.abstractThe present study reports on all deaths related to taking ecstasy (alone, or in a polydrug combination) occurring in England and Wales in the time frame August 1996-April 2002. Data presented here are based on all information recorded in the National Programme on Substance Abuse Deaths (np-SAD) database. The np-SAD regularly receives all information on drug related deaths in addicts and non addicts from coroners. A total of 202 ecstasy-related fatalities occurred in the chosen time-frame, showing a steady increase in the number of deaths each year. The ratio male:female was 4:1 and 3 of 4 victims were younger than 29. In 17% of cases ecstasy was the sole drug implicated in death and in the remaining cases a number of other drugs (mostly alcohol, cocaine, amphetamines and opiates) have been found. According to toxicology results, MDMA accounted for 86% of cases and MDA for 13% of cases; single deaths were associated with MDEA and PMA. This is the largest sample of ecstasy related deaths so far; possible explanations are given for the observed steady increase in ecstasy-related deaths and a tentative 'rationale' for this polypharmacy combination is then proposed. Copyright (C) 2003 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.en
dc.format.extent6
dc.language.isoeng
dc.relation.ispartofHuman Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental
dc.subject3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine
dc.subjectAdolescent
dc.subjectAdult
dc.subjectAmphetamine-Related Disorders
dc.subjectBenzodiazepines
dc.subjectCannabinoids
dc.subjectCocaine
dc.subjectDrug Interactions
dc.subjectEngland
dc.subjectEthanol
dc.subjectFemale
dc.subjectHallucinogens
dc.subjectHeroin
dc.subjectHumans
dc.subjectMale
dc.subjectN-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine
dc.subjectWales
dc.titleDeath rates from ecstasy (MDMA, MDA) and polydrug use in England and Wales 1996-2002en
dc.contributor.institutionHealth & Human Sciences Research Institute
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Life and Medical Sciences
dc.contributor.institutionDepartment of Pharmacy
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Clinical Practice, Safe Medicines and Drug Misuse Research
dc.contributor.institutionPatient and Medicines Safety
dc.contributor.institutionPrescription and Illicit Drug Misuse
dc.contributor.institutionPublic Health
dc.description.statusPeer reviewed
rioxxterms.versionofrecordhttps://doi.org/10.1002/hup.528
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
herts.preservation.rarelyaccessedtrue


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