Precise worst-case execution time analysis for processors with timing anomalies
This paper explores timing anomalies in WCET analysis.Timing anomalies add to the complexity of WCET analysis and make it hard to apply divide-and-conquer strategies to simplify the WCET assessment. So far, timing anomalies have been described as a problem that occurs when the WCET of a control-flow graph is computed from the WCETs of its subgraphs, i.e., from a series decomposition. This paper extends the state of the art by (i) showing that timing anomalies can as well occur in a parallel decomposition of the WCET problem, i.e., when complexity is reduced by splitting the hardware state space and performing a separate WCET analysis for hardware components that work in parallel, (ii) proving that the potential occurrence of parallel timing anomalies makes the parallel decomposition technique unsafe (i.e., one cannot guarantee that the calculated WCET bound does not underestimate the WCET), and (iii) identifying special cases of parallel timing anomalies for which the parallel decomposition technique is safe. The latter provides an important hint to hardware designers on their way to constructing predictable hardware components.