The effect of guar gum on carbohydrate-, fat- and protein-stimulated gut hormone secretion: modification of postprandial gastric inhibitory polypeptide and gastrin responses
Morgan, L M
Tredger, J A
The effect of incorporating guar gum into predominantly single-component meals of carbohydrate, fat or protein on liquid gastric emptying and on the secretion of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), gastrin and motilin, was studied in healthy human volunteers. Volunteers were given either 80 ml Hycal (carbohydrate meal), 150 g cooked lean minced beef (protein meal) or 200 ml double cream (fat meal) either with or without 5 or 6 g guar gum. Liquid gastric emptying was monitored in the fat and protein meals by taking 1.5 g paracetamol, consumed in water, with the meals and monitoring its appearance in circulation. Postprandial insulin and GIP levels were both significantly reduced by addition of guar gum to the carbohydrate meal. Postprandial GIP secretion was also reduced by addition of guar gum to the protein meal, but protein-stimulated gastrin secretion was enhanced by guar gum. There was a significant negative correlation between peak circulating gastrin levels and the corresponding GIP levels. Postprandial GIP secretion and plasma motilin levels were unaffected by addition of guar gum to the fat meal. 5 and 10 g guar gum/l solutions in water possessed buffering capacities between pH 2.75 and 5.5. Guar gum at 5 g/l caused no detectable change in liquid gastric-emptying time. The observed augmentation of gastrin secretion by guar gum following a protein meal could be due either to the buffering capacity of guar gum or to the attenuation of GIP secretion. It is possible that the chronic use of guar gum could be associated with changes in gastric acid secretion.