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dc.contributor.authorAbdo, A.A.
dc.contributor.authorAckermann, M.
dc.contributor.authorAjello, M.
dc.contributor.authorAsano, K.
dc.contributor.authorAtwood, W.B.
dc.contributor.authorAxelsson, M.
dc.contributor.authorBaldini, L.
dc.contributor.authorBallet, J.
dc.contributor.authorBarbiellini, G.
dc.contributor.authorBaring, M. G.
dc.contributor.authorBastieri, D.
dc.contributor.authorBechtol, K.
dc.contributor.authorBellazzini, R.
dc.contributor.authorBerenji, B.
dc.contributor.authorBhat, P.N.
dc.contributor.authorBissaldi, E.
dc.contributor.authorBloom, E. D.
dc.contributor.authorBonamente, E.
dc.contributor.authorBonnell, J.
dc.contributor.authorBorgland, A.W.
dc.contributor.authorBouvier, A.
dc.contributor.authorBregeon, J.
dc.contributor.authorBrez, A.
dc.contributor.authorBriggs, M.S.
dc.contributor.authorBrigida, M.
dc.contributor.authorBruel, P.
dc.contributor.authorBurgess, J. M.
dc.contributor.authorBurnett, T. H.
dc.contributor.authorCaliandro, G.A.
dc.contributor.authorCameron, R.A.
dc.contributor.authorCaraveo, P.A.
dc.contributor.authorCasandjian, J.M.
dc.contributor.authorCecchi, C.
dc.contributor.authorCelik, Oe
dc.contributor.authorChaplin, V.
dc.contributor.authorCharles, E.
dc.contributor.authorCheung, C. C.
dc.contributor.authorChiang, J.
dc.contributor.authorCiprini, S.
dc.contributor.authorClaus, R.
dc.contributor.authorCohen-Tanugi, J.
dc.contributor.authorCominsky, L. R.
dc.contributor.authorConnaughton, V.
dc.contributor.authorConrad, J.
dc.contributor.authorCutini, S.
dc.contributor.authorDermer, C. D.
dc.contributor.authorde Angelis, A.
dc.contributor.authorde Palma, F.
dc.contributor.authorDigel, S.W.
dc.contributor.authorDingus, B. L.
dc.contributor.authordo couto silva, E.
dc.contributor.authorDrell, P.S.
dc.contributor.authorDubois, R.
dc.contributor.authorDumora, D.
dc.contributor.authorFarnier, C.
dc.contributor.authorFavuzzi, C.
dc.contributor.authorFegan, S. J.
dc.contributor.authorFinke, J.
dc.contributor.authorFishman, G.
dc.contributor.authorFocke, W.B.
dc.contributor.authorFoschini, L.
dc.contributor.authorFukazawa, Y.
dc.contributor.authorFunk, S.
dc.contributor.authorFusco, P.
dc.contributor.authorGargano, F.
dc.contributor.authorGasparrini, D.
dc.contributor.authorGehrels, N.
dc.contributor.authorGermani, S.
dc.contributor.authorGibby, L.
dc.contributor.authorGiebels, B.
dc.contributor.authorGiglietto, N.
dc.contributor.authorGiordano, F.
dc.contributor.authorGlanzman, T.
dc.contributor.authorGodfrey, G.
dc.contributor.authorGranot, J.
dc.contributor.authorGreiner, J.
dc.contributor.authorGrenier, I.A.
dc.contributor.authorGrondin, M. -H.
dc.contributor.authorGrove, J. E.
dc.contributor.authorGrupe, D.
dc.contributor.authorGuillemot, L.
dc.contributor.authorGuiriec, S.
dc.contributor.authorHanabata, Y.
dc.contributor.authorHarding, A. K.
dc.contributor.authorHayashida, M.
dc.contributor.authorHays, E.
dc.contributor.authorHoversten, E. A.
dc.contributor.authorHughes, R.E.
dc.contributor.authorJohannesson, G.
dc.contributor.authorJohnson, A.S.
dc.contributor.authorJohnson, R. P.
dc.contributor.authorJohnson, W. N.
dc.contributor.authorKamae, T.
dc.contributor.authorKatagiri, H.
dc.contributor.authorKataoka, J.
dc.contributor.authorKawai, N.
dc.contributor.authorKerr, M.
dc.contributor.authorKippen, R.M.
dc.contributor.authorKnoedlseder, J.
dc.contributor.authorKocevski, D.
dc.contributor.authorKouveliotou, C.
dc.contributor.authorKuehn, F.
dc.contributor.authorKuss, M.
dc.contributor.authorLande, J.
dc.contributor.authorLatronico, L.
dc.contributor.authorLemoine-Goumard, M.
dc.contributor.authorLongo, F.
dc.contributor.authorLoparco, F.
dc.contributor.authorLott, B.
dc.contributor.authorLovellette, M. N.
dc.contributor.authorLubrano, P.
dc.contributor.authorMadejski, G. M.
dc.contributor.authorMakeev, A.
dc.contributor.authorMazziotta, M.N.
dc.contributor.authorMcBreen, S.
dc.contributor.authorMcEnery, J.E.
dc.contributor.authorMcGlynn, S.
dc.contributor.authorMeszaros, P.
dc.contributor.authorMeurer, C.
dc.contributor.authorMichelson, P.F.
dc.contributor.authorMitthumsiri, W.
dc.contributor.authorMizuno, T.
dc.contributor.authorMoiseev, A.A.
dc.contributor.authorMonte, C.
dc.contributor.authorMonzani, M.E.
dc.contributor.authorMoretti, E.
dc.contributor.authorMorselli, A.
dc.contributor.authorMoskalenko, I.V.
dc.contributor.authorMurgia, S.
dc.contributor.authorNakamori, T.
dc.contributor.authorNolan, P.L.
dc.contributor.authorNorris, J.P.
dc.contributor.authorNuss, E.
dc.contributor.authorOhno, M.
dc.contributor.authorOhsugi, T.
dc.contributor.authorOmodei, N.
dc.contributor.authorOrlando, E.
dc.contributor.authorOrmes, J. F.
dc.contributor.authorOzaki, M.
dc.contributor.authorPaciesas, W. S.
dc.contributor.authorPaneque, D.
dc.contributor.authorPanetta, J. H.
dc.contributor.authorParent, D.
dc.contributor.authorPelassa, V.
dc.contributor.authorPepe, M.
dc.contributor.authorPesce-Rollins, M.
dc.contributor.authorPetrosian, V.
dc.contributor.authorPiron, F.
dc.contributor.authorPorter, T.A.
dc.contributor.authorPreece, R.
dc.contributor.authorRaino, S.
dc.contributor.authorRamirez-Ruiz, E.
dc.contributor.authorRando, R.
dc.contributor.authorRazzano, M.
dc.contributor.authorRazzaque, S.
dc.contributor.authorReimer, A.
dc.contributor.authorReimer, O.
dc.contributor.authorReposeur, T.
dc.contributor.authorRitz, S.
dc.contributor.authorRochester, L. S.
dc.contributor.authorRodriguez, A. Y.
dc.contributor.authorRoth, M.
dc.contributor.authorRyde, F.
dc.contributor.authorSadrozinski, H.F.W.
dc.contributor.authorSanchez, D.
dc.contributor.authorSander, A.
dc.contributor.authorParkinson, P. M. Saz
dc.contributor.authorScargle, J. D.
dc.contributor.authorSchalk, T. L.
dc.contributor.authorSgro, C.
dc.contributor.authorSiskind, E.J.
dc.contributor.authorSmith, D. A.
dc.contributor.authorSmith, P.D.
dc.contributor.authorSpandre, G.
dc.contributor.authorSpinelli, P.
dc.contributor.authorStamatikos, M.
dc.contributor.authorStecker, F. W.
dc.contributor.authorStrickman, M.S.
dc.contributor.authorSuson, D. J.
dc.contributor.authorTajima, H.
dc.contributor.authorTakahashi, H.
dc.contributor.authorTakahashi, T.
dc.contributor.authorTanaka, T.
dc.contributor.authorThayer, J. B.
dc.contributor.authorThayer, J.G.
dc.contributor.authorThompson, D.J.
dc.contributor.authorTibaldo, L.
dc.contributor.authorToma, K.
dc.contributor.authorTorres, D.F.
dc.contributor.authorTosti, G.
dc.contributor.authorTroja, E.
dc.contributor.authorUchiyama, Y.
dc.contributor.authorUehara, T.
dc.contributor.authorUsher, T.L.
dc.contributor.authorvan der Horst, A. J.
dc.contributor.authorVasileiou, V.
dc.contributor.authorVilchez, N.
dc.contributor.authorVitale, V.
dc.contributor.authorvon Kienlin, A.
dc.contributor.authorWaite, A.P.
dc.contributor.authorWang, P.
dc.contributor.authorWilson-Hodge, C.
dc.contributor.authorWiner, B.L.
dc.contributor.authorWood, K.S.
dc.contributor.authorWu, X. F.
dc.contributor.authorYamazaki, R.
dc.contributor.authorYlinen, T.
dc.contributor.authorZiegler, M.
dc.date.accessioned2012-04-12T07:58:13Z
dc.date.available2012-04-12T07:58:13Z
dc.date.issued2009-11-19
dc.identifier.citationAbdo , A A , Ackermann , M , Ajello , M , Asano , K , Atwood , W B , Axelsson , M , Baldini , L , Ballet , J , Barbiellini , G , Baring , M G , Bastieri , D , Bechtol , K , Bellazzini , R , Berenji , B , Bhat , P N , Bissaldi , E , Bloom , E D , Bonamente , E , Bonnell , J , Borgland , A W , Bouvier , A , Bregeon , J , Brez , A , Briggs , M S , Brigida , M , Bruel , P , Burgess , J M , Burnett , T H , Caliandro , G A , Cameron , R A , Caraveo , P A , Casandjian , J M , Cecchi , C , Celik , O , Chaplin , V , Charles , E , Cheung , C C , Chiang , J , Ciprini , S , Claus , R , Cohen-Tanugi , J , Cominsky , L R , Connaughton , V , Conrad , J , Cutini , S , Dermer , C D , de Angelis , A , de Palma , F , Digel , S W , Dingus , B L , do couto silva , E , Drell , P S , Dubois , R , Dumora , D , Farnier , C , Favuzzi , C , Fegan , S J , Finke , J , Fishman , G , Focke , W B , Foschini , L , Fukazawa , Y , Funk , S , Fusco , P , Gargano , F , Gasparrini , D , Gehrels , N , Germani , S , Gibby , L , Giebels , B , Giglietto , N , Giordano , F , Glanzman , T , Godfrey , G , Granot , J , Greiner , J , Grenier , I A , Grondin , M -H , Grove , J E , Grupe , D , Guillemot , L , Guiriec , S , Hanabata , Y , Harding , A K , Hayashida , M , Hays , E , Hoversten , E A , Hughes , R E , Johannesson , G , Johnson , A S , Johnson , R P , Johnson , W N , Kamae , T , Katagiri , H , Kataoka , J , Kawai , N , Kerr , M , Kippen , R M , Knoedlseder , J , Kocevski , D , Kouveliotou , C , Kuehn , F , Kuss , M , Lande , J , Latronico , L , Lemoine-Goumard , M , Longo , F , Loparco , F , Lott , B , Lovellette , M N , Lubrano , P , Madejski , G M , Makeev , A , Mazziotta , M N , McBreen , S , McEnery , J E , McGlynn , S , Meszaros , P , Meurer , C , Michelson , P F , Mitthumsiri , W , Mizuno , T , Moiseev , A A , Monte , C , Monzani , M E , Moretti , E , Morselli , A , Moskalenko , I V , Murgia , S , Nakamori , T , Nolan , P L , Norris , J P , Nuss , E , Ohno , M , Ohsugi , T , Omodei , N , Orlando , E , Ormes , J F , Ozaki , M , Paciesas , W S , Paneque , D , Panetta , J H , Parent , D , Pelassa , V , Pepe , M , Pesce-Rollins , M , Petrosian , V , Piron , F , Porter , T A , Preece , R , Raino , S , Ramirez-Ruiz , E , Rando , R , Razzano , M , Razzaque , S , Reimer , A , Reimer , O , Reposeur , T , Ritz , S , Rochester , L S , Rodriguez , A Y , Roth , M , Ryde , F , Sadrozinski , H F W , Sanchez , D , Sander , A , Parkinson , P M S , Scargle , J D , Schalk , T L , Sgro , C , Siskind , E J , Smith , D A , Smith , P D , Spandre , G , Spinelli , P , Stamatikos , M , Stecker , F W , Strickman , M S , Suson , D J , Tajima , H , Takahashi , H , Takahashi , T , Tanaka , T , Thayer , J B , Thayer , J G , Thompson , D J , Tibaldo , L , Toma , K , Torres , D F , Tosti , G , Troja , E , Uchiyama , Y , Uehara , T , Usher , T L , van der Horst , A J , Vasileiou , V , Vilchez , N , Vitale , V , von Kienlin , A , Waite , A P , Wang , P , Wilson-Hodge , C , Winer , B L , Wood , K S , Wu , X F , Yamazaki , R , Ylinen , T & Ziegler , M 2009 , ' A limit on the variation of the speed of light arising from quantum gravity effects ' , Nature , vol. 462 , no. 7271 , pp. 331-334 . https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08574
dc.identifier.issn0028-0836
dc.identifier.otherPURE: 778480
dc.identifier.otherPURE UUID: 0d69c02b-2e3c-4312-baa5-05631ac3ca79
dc.identifier.otherWOS: 000271899300039
dc.identifier.otherScopus: 70450278871
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/2299/8299
dc.description.abstractA cornerstone of Einstein's special relativity is Lorentz invariance-the postulate that all observers measure exactly the same speed of light in vacuum, independent of photon-energy. While special relativity assumes that there is no fundamental length-scale associated with such invariance, there is a fundamental scale (the Planck scale, l(Planck) approximate to 1.62 x 10(-33) cm or E-Planck = M(Planck)c(2) approximate to 1.22 x 10(19) GeV), at which quantum effects are expected to strongly affect the nature of space-time. There is great interest in the (not yet validated) idea that Lorentz invariance might break near the Planck scale. A key test of such violation of Lorentz invariance is a possible variation of photon speed with energy(1-7). Even a tiny variation in photon speed, when accumulated over cosmological light-travel times, may be revealed by observing sharp features in gamma-ray burst (GRB) light-curves(2). Here we report the detection of emission up to similar to 31GeV from the distant and short GRB090510. We find no evidence for the violation of Lorentz invariance, and place a lower limit of 1.2E(Planck) on the scale of a linear energy dependence (or an inverse wavelength dependence), subject to reasonable assumptions about the emission (equivalently we have an upper limit of l(Planck)/1.2 on the length scale of the effect). Our results disfavour quantum-gravity theories(3,6,7) in which the quantum nature of space-time on a very small scale linearly alters the speed of light.en
dc.format.extent4
dc.language.isoeng
dc.relation.ispartofNature
dc.rightsOpen
dc.subjectGAMMA-RAY BURSTS
dc.subjectHIGH-ENERGY
dc.subjectVIOLATION
dc.subjectEMISSION
dc.subjectPHOTONS
dc.subjectLORENTZ
dc.subjectTESTS
dc.subjectFOAM
dc.titleA limit on the variation of the speed of light arising from quantum gravity effectsen
dc.contributor.institutionSchool of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics
dc.contributor.institutionScience & Technology Research Institute
dc.contributor.institutionCentre for Astrophysics Research
dc.description.statusPeer reviewed
dc.relation.schoolSchool of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics
dc.description.versiontypeSubmitted Version
dcterms.dateAccepted2009-11-19
rioxxterms.versionSMUR
rioxxterms.versionofrecordhttps://doi.org/10.1038/nature08574
rioxxterms.typeJournal Article/Review
herts.preservation.rarelyaccessedtrue
herts.rights.accesstypeOpen


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