Hydrology of the combination irrigation system in the Wadi Faynan, Jordan
The field system of the Wadi Faynan in southern Jordan was fed by an ancient combination irrigation system that incorporated runoff farming and diversion irrigation techniques. The hydraulic characteristics of this system were most probably designed to take advantage of the confluence of three tributary streams. A theoretical model of discharge produced by runoff is based on contemporary ground conditions and historic climate reconstructions. The design principles of the main hydraulic features are examined and velocity and discharge measurements in principal conveyance irrigation channels are reconstructed. The design of this hydraulic system took into account the environmental constraints and opportunities of the area and maximized different sources of water in the catchment using various techniques of water collection.