Dispersal of Septoria nodorum pycnidiospores by simulated rain and wind
Fitt, Bruce D.L.
The influence of wind on the splash dispersal of Septoria nodorum pycnidiospores was studied in a raintower/wind tunnel complex with single drops or simulated rain falling on spore suspensions or infected stubble with windspeeds of 1.5 to 4 m/sec. When single drops fell on spore suspensions (depth 0.5 mm, concentration 7.8 × 105 spores/ml) most of the spore-carrying droplets collected on fixed photographic film between 0–4 m downwind (windspeed 3 m/sec) were >200 μm in diameter. However, most spores were carried in droplets with diameter > 1000 μm, 70 % of which carried more than 100 spores. When simulated rain fell on infected stubble most of the spore-carrying droplets collected beyond 1 m downwind (windspeeds 1.4 and 4 m/sec) were <200 μm in diameter and none were >600 μm; most of these droplets carried only one spore. The distribution of splash droplets (with diameter >100 μm) deposited on chromatography paper showed a maximum at 40–50 cm upwind of the target but many more droplets were deposited 20–30 cm downwind, when single drops fell on a spore suspension (concentration 1.2 × 105 spores/ ml) containing fluorescein dye with a windspeed of 2 m/sec; droplets were collected up to 3 m downwind but not more than 70 cm upwind. With a windspeed of 3 m/sec, numbers of sporecarrying droplets and spores collected on film decreased with increasing distance downwind; most were collected within 2 m of the target but some were found up to 4 m. When simulated rain fell on infected stubble, increasing the windspeed from 1.5 to 4 m/sec greatly increased the number of spores deposited more than 1 m downwind. At 1.5 m/sec none were collected beyond 2 m downwind, whereas at 4 m/sec some were collected at 4 m. A few air-borne S. nodorum spores were collected by suction samplers at a height of 40 cm at distances up to 10 m downwind of a target spore suspension on which simulated rain fell.