Cloud Ice Properties: In Situ Measurement Challenges
Heymsfield, Andrew J.
Understanding the formation and evolution of ice in clouds requires detailed information on the size, shape, mass and optical properties of individual cloud hydrometeors and their bulk properties over a broad range of atmospheric conditions. Since the 1960s, instrumentation and research aircraft have evolved providing increasingly more accurate and larger quantities of data about cloud particle properties. In this chapter we review the current status of electrical powered, in situ measurement systems with respect to their strengths and weaknesses and document their limitations and uncertainties. There remain many outstanding challenges. These are summarized and accompanied by recommendations for moving forward. through new developments that fill the remaining information gaps. Closing these gaps will remove the obstacles that continue to hinder our understanding of cloud processes in general and the evolution of ice in particular.