Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) – knowledge and experiences of drug users from Hungary, Poland, the UK and the USA
Dopamine D 3 receptor partial agonists represent a new generation of atypical antipsychotics. Cariprazine, which has received centralized market authorization from the European Medicines Agency in 2017 for the treatment of adult patients with schizophrenia (including those with predominant negative symptoms of schizophrenia) differs from the other two partial agonist antipsychotics aripiprazole and brexpiprazole due to its unique features. Cariprazine is a dopamine D 3 preferring D 3/D2 partial agonist with very similar dopamine receptor sub-type selectivity as dopamine. It has proven efficacy in the treatment of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as well as for relapse prevention. Further phase-3 clinical studies proved the efficacy of cariprazine in the acute treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder, as well as in bipolar depression. For the adjunctive treatment of major depressive disorder, phase 3 studies are in progress.