Evaluation of transabdominal and transperineal ultrasound-derived prostate specific antigen (PSA) density and clinical utility compared to MRI prostate volumes: A feasibility study
Gnanapragasam, Vincent J.
Purpose: To investigate the accuracy of surface-based ultrasound-derived PSA-density (US-PSAD) versus gold-standard MRI-PSAD as a risk-stratification tool. Methods: Single-centre prospective study of patients undergoing MRI for suspected prostate cancer (PCa). Four combinations of US-volumes were calculated using transperineal (TP) and transabdominal (TA) views, with triplanar measurements to calculate volume and US-PSAD. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to compare US and MRI volumes. Categorical comparison of MRI-PSAD and US-PSAD was performed at PSAD cut-offs 0.20 ng/mL2 to assess agreement with MRI-PSAD risk-stratification decisions. Results: 64 men were investigated, mean age 69 years and PSA 7.0 ng/mL. 36/64 had biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer (18 Gleason 3+3, 18 Gleason ≥3+4). Mean MRI-derived gland volume was 60 mL, compared to 56 mL for TA-US, and 65 mL TP-US. ICC demonstrated good agreement for all US volumes with MRI, with highest agreement for transabdominal US, followed by combined TA/TP volumes. Risk-stratification decisions to biopsy showed concordant agreement between triplanar MRI-PSAD and ultrasound-PSAD in 86–91% and 92–95% at PSAD thresholds of >0.15 ng/mL2 and >0.12 ng/mL2, respectively. Decision to biopsy at threshold >0.12 ng/mL2, demonstrated sensitivity ranges of 81–100%, specificity 85–100%, PPV 86–100% and NPV 83–100%. Transabdominal US provided optimal sensitivity of 100% for this clinical decision, with specificity 85%, and transperineal US provided optimal specificity of 100%, with sensitivity 87%. Conclusion: Transperineal-US and combined TA-TP US-derived PSA density values compare well with standard MRI-derived values and could be used to provide accurate PSAD at presentation and inform the need for further investigations.